A Activity diagram used in UML 6/9 and SysML B Bachman diagram Booch used in software engineering Block diagram Block Definition Diagram BDD used in SysML C Carroll diagram Cartogram Catalytic cycle Chemical equation Curly arrow diagram Category theory diagrams Cause-and-effect diagram Chord diagram Circuit diagram Class diagram from UML 1/9 Collaboration diagram from UML 2.0 Communication diagram from UML 2.0 Commutative diagram Comparison diagram Component diagram from UML 3/9 Composite structure diagram from UML 2.0 Concept map Constellation diagram Context diagram Control flow diagram Contour diagram Cordier diagram Cross functional flowchart D Data model diagram Data flow diagram Data structure diagram Dendrogram Dependency diagram Deployment diagram from UML 9/9 Dot and cross diagram Double bubble map used in education Drakon-chart E Entity-Relationship diagram ERD Event-driven process chain Euler diagram Eye diagram a diagram of a received telecommunications signal Express-G Extended Functional Flow Block Diagram EFFBD F Family tree Feynman diagram Flow chart Flow process chart Flow diagram Fusion diagram Free body diagram G Gantt chart shows the timing of tasks or activities used in project management Grotrian diagram Goodman diagram shows the fatigue data example: for a wind turbine blades H Hasse diagram HIPO diagram I Internal Block Diagram IBD used in SysML IDEF0 IDEF1 entity relations Interaction overview diagram from UML Ishikawa diagram J Jackson diagram K Karnaugh map Kinematic diagram L Ladder diagram Line of balance Link grammar diagram M Martin ERD Message Sequence Chart Mind map used for learning, brainstorming, memory, visual thinking and problem solving Minkowski spacetime diagram Molecular orbital diagram N N2 Nassi Shneiderman diagram or structogram a representation for structured programming Nomogram Network diagram O Object diagram from UML 2/9 Organigram Onion diagram also known as "stacked Venn diagram" P Package diagram from UML 4/9 and SysML Parametric diagram from SysML PERT Petri net shows the structure of a distributed system as a directed bipartite graph with annotations Phylogenetic tree - represents a phylogeny evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms Piping and instrumentation diagram P&ID Phase diagram used to present solid/liquid/gas information Plant Diagram Pressure volume diagram used to analyse engines Pourbaix diagram Process flow diagram or PFD used in chemical engineering Program structure diagram R Radar chart Radial Diagram Requirement Diagram Used in SysML Rich Picture R-diagram Routing diagram S Sankey diagram represents material, energy or cost flows with quantity proportional arrows in a process network. Sentence diagram represents the grammatical structure of a natural language sentence. Sequence diagram from UML 8/9 and SysML SDL/GR diagram Specification and Description Language. SDL is a formal language used in computer science. Smith chart Spider chart Spray diagram SSADM Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology used in software engineering Star chart/Celestial sphere State diagram are used for state machines in software engineering from UML 7/9 Swim lane Syntax diagram used in software engineering to represent a context-free grammar Systems Biology Graphical Notation a graphical notation used in diagrams of biochemical and cellular processes studied in Systems biology System context diagram System structure Systematic layout planning T Timing Diagram: Digital Timing Diagram Timing Diagram: UML 2.0 TQM Diagram Treemap U UML diagram Unified Modeling Language used in software engineering Use case diagram from UML 5/9 and SysML V Value Stream Mapping Venn diagram Voronoi diagram W Warnier-Orr Williot diagram Y Yourdon-Coad see Edward Yourdon, used in software engineering
The nitrogenous bases are in the interior of the DNA double helix, with the sugars and phosphate portions of each nucleotide forming the backbone of the molecule. When a DNA helix splits, like to transcribe DNA , complementary bases attach to each exposed half so identical copies can be formed.
There are four nitrogenous bases in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine. Adenine (A) and guanine are classified as purines, while cytosine and thymine are classified as pyrimidines. Along with a phosphate group and deoxyribose, these bases form nucleotides.
Five nitrogenous bases are found in nucleic acids ( Fig. 4 ); adenine (A), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) are in both DNA and RNA, whereas thymine (T) is almost exclusively found in DNA, and uracil (U) almost exclusively in RN A. DNA and RNA are quantified by their absorption of UV light at 260 nm.
The Structure of DNA. Nucleic acids are made up of chains of many repeating units called nucleotides (see bottom left of Figure 1 below). The DNA molecule actually consists of two such chains that spiral around an imaginary axis to form a double helix (spiral.) Nucleic acid molecules are incredibly complex,...
DNA is a long string of these blocks or letters. Each nucleotide consists of a sugar (deoxyribose) bound on one side to a phosphate group and bound on the other side to a nitrogenous base. There are two classes of nitrogen bases called purines (double ringed structures) and pyrimidines (single ringed structures). The four bases in DNA's ...
a nitrogenous base: cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A) or thymine (T) a five carbon sugar molecule (deoxyribose in the case of DNA) a phosphate molecule; The backbone of the polynucleotide is a chain of sugar and phosphate molecules. Each of the sugar groups in this sugar phosphate backbone is linked to one of the four nitrogenous bases.
Attaching a base and making a nucleotide. The final piece that we need to add to this structure before we can build a DNA strand is one of four complicated organic bases. In DNA, these bases are cytosine (C), thymine (T), adenine (A) and guanine (G).
There are four nitrogenous bases found in DNA that are called guanine, adenine, thymine and cytosine. They are abbreviated by the first letter in their name, or G , A , T and C .
in a nucleic acid chain, a sub unit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
The main biological function of a nitrogenous base is to bond nucleic acids together. A nitrogenous base owes its basic properties to the lone pair of electrons of a nitrogen atom. Nitrogenous bases are typically classified as the derivatives of two parent compounds, pyrimidine and purine. They are non polar and due to their aromaticity, planar.